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Moodle TeX Filter Glossary
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Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O
P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

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## A

:

 Absolute Font Sizes Command Example Result \tiny $$\tiny 3x$$ \small $$\small 3x$$ \normalsize (default) $$\normalsize 3x$$ or just $$3x$$ \large $$\large 3x$$ \Large $$\Large 3x$$ \LARGE $$\LARGE 3x$$ \huge and \Huge are not supported by the mimeTeX filter

:
$$\alpha$$ gives
:
• Syntax: \left<...\right>
• Ex.: $$\left<f,g\right>$$ gives

:
• Type arithmetic operations and "=" as usual.
• Exp.: $$f(x)=x-2b+(3a/c)$$ gives

• See also keyword "fraction" for extended capabilities.
:
• Syntax for an n-dimensional array:
\begin{array}a1&...&an\end{array}
• Ex.: $$$$\begin{array}a_{\fs{0}1}\fs{3},&a_{\fs{0}2}\fs{3},&a_{\fs{0}3}\end{array}$$$$ gives

 Keyword(s): array, vector, matrix

## B

:
$$\beta$$ gives
:
• Syntax: \left{...\right}
• Ex.: $$M=\left{a, b, c\right}$$ gives

## C

:
$$a\cdot~b$$ gives
:
$$\chi$$ gives
:
• Numbers in formulas are interpreted as constants and they are rendered in non-italic roman font face, which is a widely used convention.
• Following this convention, variables are shown in italic.
• Exp.: $$f(x)=3a+x$$ gives

:
• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Syntax for the contour integral symbol:

$$\bigoint_{0}^{\infty}$$   gives

and

$$\oint_{0}^{\infty}$$   gives

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigoint_{\small0}^{\small\infty}$$   gives

and

$$\large\oint_{\small0}^{\small\infty}$$   gives

:
• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Note: mimeTeX seems currently only to support the \bigcoprod command.
• Syntax for coproduct symbol:

$$\bigcoprod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigcoprod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small~n}$$   gives

 Keyword(s): coprod

## D

:

 Delimiters (parentheses, braces, brackets. ...) Command Example Result \left(... \right) $$2\left(a+b\right)$$ \left[... \right] $$\left[a^2+b^2~\right]$$ \left{... \right} $$\left{x^2, x^3, x^4,... \right}$$ \left\langle... \right\rangle $$\left\langle a,b~\right\rangle$$ \left| ... \right| $$\det\left|\array{a&b\\c&d}\right|$$ \left\| ... \right\| $$\left\|f~\right\|$$ \left{ ... \right.(note the dot!) $$f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$$(\rm switches to roman style) \left.{ ... \right\}(note the dot!) $$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$

Note: The delimiters are automatically sizes.

:
$$\Delta$$ gives
:
$$\delta$$ gives
 Keyword(s): delta
:
$$x\div~y$$ gives
:
• Syntax: \left\|...\right\|
• Exp.: $$\left\|af\right\| = \left|a\right|\left\|f\right\|$$ gives

 Keyword(s): norm

## E

:
$$\epsilon$$ gives
:
• With two triple $'s embracing an expression you can make the filter to escape and the code itself is shown (with two embracing double$'s).
• Ex.: $$a^2$$$produces $$a^2$$, i.e. prevents the filter to render it as a formula gif.  Keyword(s): escape; suppress filter; prevent from filtering : $$\eta$$ gives ## F : $$\fbox{x=\frac{1}{2}}$$ gives  Keyword(s): fbox : • Syntax: \frac{numerator}{denominator} • Use font sizing commands for specific sizing if you don't want the predefined one to be taken. • Ex. (with predefined sizing): $$f(x,y)=\frac{2a}{x+y}$$ gives • Ex. (with specific sizing): $$f(x,y)=\frac{\fs{2}2a}{\fs{2}x+y}$$ gives • You may nest fractions as much as you want. • Ex. (nested fractions): $$\frac{\frac{a}{x-y}+\frac{b}{x+y}}{1+\frac{a-b}{a+b}}$$ gives ## G : $$\gamma$$ gives : $$\Gamma$$ gives : $$x>y$$ gives  Keyword(s): >greater than : $$x\ge~y$$ or $$x\geq~y$$ gives  Keyword(s): >= : Simply write \greekletter for lower case and \Greekletter for upper case. Here's a list of all known greek letters (Note: not all upper case greek letters are known): Lower Case Greek Letters:  Command Filter Expression Result \alpha $$\alpha$$ \beta $$\beta$$ \gamma $$\gamma$$ \delta $$\delta$$ \epsilon $$\epsilon$$ \varepsilon $$\varepsilon$$ \zeta $$\zeta$$ \eta $$\eta$$ \theta $$\theta$$ \vartheta $$\vartheta$$ \iota $$\iota$$ \kappa $$\kappa$$ \lambda $$\lambda$$ \mu $$\mu$$ \nu $$\nu$$ \xi $$\xi$$ o (!) $$o$$ \pi $$\pi$$ \varpi $$\varpi$$ \rho $$\rho$$ \varrho $$\varrho$$ \sigma $$\sigma$$ \varsigma $$\varsima$$ \tau $$\tau$$ \upsilon $$\upsilon$$ \phi $$\phi$$ \varphi $$\varphi$$ \chi $$\chi$$ \psi $$\psi$$ \omega $$\omega$$ Upper Case Greek Letters:  Command Filter Expression Result \Gamma $$\Gamma$$ \Delta $$\Delta$$ \Theta $$\Theta$$ \Lambda $$\Lambda$$ \Xi $$\Xi$$ \Pi $$\Pi$$ \Sigma $$\Sigma$$ \Upsilon $$\Upsilon$$ \Phi $$\Phi$$ \Psi $$\Psi$$ \Omega $$\Omega$$ ## I : $$\infty$$ gives  Keyword(s): infinity : • General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits: \symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression} • In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix. • Syntax for integral symbol: $$\bigint_{0}^{\infty}$$ gives and $$\int_{0}^{\infty}$$ gives • Use font size commands for a nicer picture: $$\LARGE\bigint_{\small0}^{\small\infty}$$ gives and $$\large\int_{\small0}^{\small\infty}$$ gives  Keyword(s): int : $$\iota$$ gives ## K : $$\kappa$$ gives ## L : $$\lambda$$ gives : $$\Lambda$$ gives :  Keyword(s): learning formula : • Syntax: \left{...\right. (note the dot at the end!) • Ex.: $$f(x)=\left{{x^2, \rm~if x>-1\atop~0, \rm~else}\right.$$ gives (\rm~something switches to roman style) : $$<$$ gives  Keyword(s): less than< : $$x\le~y$$ or $$x\leq~y$$ gives  Keyword(s): <= ## M : List of predefined spaces:  Math Spaces Command Example Result \, (smallest predefined) $$a\,b$$ \: (second smallest predefined) $$a\:b$$ \; (third smallest predefined) $$a\;b$$ \/ (avoiding ligatures) $$V\/A$$ instead of $$VA$$ instead of \quad (space of current character set size) $$a\quad~b$$ \qquad (double space of current character set size) $$a\qquad~b$$ \_ (where _ is blank!) $$a\ b$$(whereas $$a\b$$ is not a valid filter expression since the blank space is missing; it is recommended to use the tilde ~ instead of the simple whitespace) \hspace{n} ,where n positive integer (= n Pixels) $$a~\hspace{30}~b$$$$a~\hspace{15}~b$$$$a~\hspace{2}~b$$$$a~\hspace{1}~b$$ \unitlength{m}\hspace{n}, changes the default unit length (m=1px) to be applied $$a~\hspace{2}~b\unitlength{10}~\hspace{2}~c$$(second space is 10x2=20px) Note: Simple blank spaces and tildes (~) are ignored by the TeX filter and don't produce any space. You must use one of the defined math spaces to get a visible (extra) space.  Keyword(s): spaces in formulas, predefined spaces : • A valid expression inside the$'s is rendered as mathematics in an inserted gif image.
• Ex.: $$x=y^2$$ creates

 Keyword(s): mathematics expression
:
• An (m,n)-matrix is considered as an array of m*n elements, where the elements of a column are separated by "&" and the rows by "\\".
• Syntax for an (m,n)-matrix:
\begin{array}{colformat}a11&...&a1n\\a21&...&a2n\\... \\am1&...&amn \end{array}

where
colformat defines the format of each of the n columns: l for left, r for right and c for center (hence {ccccc} defines for a (m,5)-matrix in which all columns are centered)

• Ex.: $$\left(\begin{array}{lcr}a_{\tiny1}+d & a_{\tiny2}+d & a_{\tiny3}+d \\ b_{\tiny1}& b_{\tiny2}& b_{\tiny3} \\ c_{\tiny1} & c_{\tiny2} & c_{\tiny3} \end{array}\right)$$ gives

Note in the example above that "lcr" has the effect that column 1 is left aligned, column 2 centered and colums 3 right aligned.

 Keyword(s): matrix, array
:
$$\mp~a$$ gives
:
$$\mu$$ gives
:
$$a\cdot~b$$ gives
 Keyword(s): cdot

## N

:

$$x\neq~y$$ gives

note: \neg produces the logical negation, i.e. $$\neg~A$$ gives

 Keyword(s): <>
:
$$\nu$$ gives

## O

:
$$\omega$$ gives
:
$$\Omega$$ gives
:

$$o$$ gives

(note this exceptional syntax!)

## P

:
• Syntax: \left(...\right) or $$...$$
• Ex.: $$2a\left(b+c\right)$$ gives

:
$$\phi$$ gives
:
$$\Phi$$ gives
:
$$\pi$$ gives
:
$$\Pi$$ gives
:
$$a\pm~b$$ gives
:
• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Syntax for product symbol:

$$\bigprod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

and

$$\prod_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigprod_{\tiny{i=k}}^{\tiny{n}}$$   gives

and

$$\large\prod_{\small{i=k}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

:
$$\psi$$ gives
:
$$\Psi$$ gives

## R

:
$$\rho$$ gives
:
• Syntax: \left.{...\right}  (note the dot!)
• Ex.: $$\left.{{\rm~term1\atop\rm~term2}\right}=y$$ gives

(\rm~something switches to roman style)

:
• Syntax: \sqrt[n]{arg} or simply  \sqrt{arg} for \sqrt[2]{arg}
• Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{8}$$ gives

• Ex.: $$\sqrt{-1}$$ gives

• Nesting of roots (and combining with fractions, ...etc.) are possible.
• Ex.: $$\sqrt[n]{\frac{x^n-y^n}{1+u^{2n}}}$$ gives

• Ex.: $$\sqrt[3]{-q+\sqrt{q^2+p^3}}$$ gives

 Keyword(s): square root

## S

:
$$\sigma$$ gives
:
$$\Sigma$$ gives
:
$$~\unitlength{.6}~\picture(100){~~(50,50){\circle(99)}~ ~(20,55;50,0;2){+1\hat\bullet}~~(50,40){\bullet}~~(50,35){\circle(50,25;34)}~ ~(50,35){\circle(50,45;34)}}$$  is
 Keyword(s): smiley
:
• Synatx: \left[...\right]
• Ex.: $$\left[a,b\right]$$ gives
:
• $$\sqrt{a}$$ or $$\sqrt~a$$ gives
• Use braces for terms with more than one character: $$\sqrt{x+y}$$ gives

:
• The command character "_" triggers subscription of the following expression(s).
• For more than one subscripted character put them in braces {...}.
• Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
• Ex.:$$x_1$$ gives

• Ex.:$$a_{m+2n}$$ gives

• Ex. (with specific sizing):  $$x_{\small1}=a_{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

• Combine subscripting with superscripting (command character "^").
Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
• Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

:
• General syntax for symbols with a kind of lower and upper limits:

\symbolname_{lowerexpression}^{upperexpression}

• In general, there are two ways how these lower and upper expressions can be placed: centered below and above the symbol or in a subscript / superscript manner. In the first case the symbol name is preceded by the word "big", in the second there is no prefix.
• Syntax for summation symbol:

$$\bigsum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

and

$$\sum_{i=k}^{n}$$   gives

• Use font size commands for a nicer picture:

$$\LARGE\bigsum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

and

$$\large\sum_{\small{i=1}}^{\small{n}}$$   gives

 Keyword(s): big sum
:
• The command character "^" triggers superscription of the following expression(s).
• For more than one superscripted character put them in braces {...}.
• Use font sizing commands for appropriate sizing.
• Ex.: $$x^2$$ gives

• Ex.: $$a^{m+2n}$$ gives

• Ex. (with specific sizing): $$x^{\small2}=a^{\small{m+2n}}$$ gives

• Combine superscripting with subscripting (command character "_").
Syntax: Expr_{subExpr}^{supExpr}.
• Ex.: $$A_{\small{i,j,k}}^{\small{-n+2}}$$ gives

## T

:
$$\tau$$ gives
:
notation allows for the expression of ASCII characters to generate formatted graphics output
 Keyword(s): TeX
:
$$\theta$$ gives
:
$$\Theta$$ gives
:
$$a\times~b$$ gives
:
$$\triangle~abc$$ gives
 Keyword(s): triangle
:
• Two double \$'s embracing a valid math expression trigger the filter to generate and insert the formula gif.
• Ex.:  $$a^2$$ produces
 Keyword(s): trigger, TeX filter, start filter

## U

:
$$\upsilon$$ gives
:
$$\Upsilon$$ gives

## V

:
$$\varepsilon$$ gives
:
• Variables in formulas are rendered in italic roman font face, which is a widely used convention.
• Following this convention, constants are shown as non-italic.
• Exp.: $$f(x)=3a+x$$ gives

:
$$\varphi$$ gives
:
$$\varpi$$ gives
:
$$\varrho$$ gives
:
$$\varsigma$$ gives
:
$$\vartheta$$ gives
:
• Syntax: \left|...\right|
• Ex.: $$\left|b-a\right|$$ gives
• Ex.: $${\rm~det}\left|\begin{array}{cc}a&b\\c&d \end{array}\right|$$ gives

("\rm~something" renders "something" in roman style)

 Keyword(s): absolute value symbol, determinant symbol

## X

:
$$\xi$$ gives
:
$$\Xi$$ gives

## Z

:
$$\zeta$$ gives

## \

:
• \, inserts the smallest predefined space in a formula
• Equivalent: \hspace{2}
• Ex.: $$a\,b$$ gives
• Ex.: $$a~\hspace{2}~b$$ gives also
 Keyword(s): math spaces
:
• \/ (backslash slash) avoids ligatures
• Ex.: $$V\/A$$ gives in contrast to $$VA$$ which gives
 Keyword(s): math spaces, ligature
:
• \: inserts the second smallest predefined space in a formula
• Equivalent: \hspace{4}
• Ex.: $$a\:b$$ gives
• Ex.: $$a~\hspace{4}~b$$ gives also
 Keyword(s): math spaces
:
• \; (backslash semicolon) inserts the third smallest predefined space in a formula
• Equivalent: \hspace{6}
• Ex.: $$a\;b$$ gives
• Ex.: $$a~\hspace{6}~b$$ gives also
 Keyword(s): math spaces
:
• inserts a space of n pixels
• Ex.: $$f(x)\hspace{6}=\hspace{6}0$$ gives
• can be combined with the preceding command \unitlength{m}(default: m=1px) , which defines the applied unit
• Ex.: $$\unitlength{20}a\hspace{2}b$$ gives , i.e. a space of 20x2=40px
 Keyword(s): math spaces
:
• Everthing following the \LARGE command will be output in the largest predefined font size until the system encounters another font size command.
• Note: This command is case sensitive, since large, Large and LARGE are different sizes!
• Ex.: $$\LARGE~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size,
:
• Everthing following the \Large command will be output in the second largest font size until the system encounters another font size command.
• Note: This command is case sensitive, since large, Large and LARGE are different sizes!
• Ex.: $$\Large~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size,
:
• Everthing following the \large command will be output in the large font size until the system encounters another font size command.
• Note: This command is case sensitive, since large, Large and LARGE are different sizes!
• Ex.: $$\large~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size, fs{3}
:
• Everthing following the \normalsize command will be output in the smallest predefined font size until the system encounters another font size command.
• \normalsize is the default font size, i.e. the size automatically chosen if there is no font size command
• Ex.: $$\normalsize~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size,
:
• inserts a double space of current character set size
• Ex.: $$a\qquad~b$$ gives
 Keyword(s): math space
:
• inserts a space of current character set size
• Ex.: $$a\quad~b$$ gives
 Keyword(s): math spaces
:
• \small
• Ex.: $$\small~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size,
:
• Everthing following the \tiny command will be output in the smallest predefined font size until the system encounters another font size command.
• Ex.: $$\tiny~3x$$ gives
 Keyword(s): font size,
:
• Ordinary whitespace to be used after a dot not denoting the end of a sentence
• After commands without parameters use \~ (tilde) instead in order to avoid browser specific problems
 Keyword(s): math spaces, whitespace, blank space
:
• In order to prevent some browser specific problems with whitespaces, it is advisable to use ~ (tilde) as the whitespace instead of the normal blank key (in places where whitespaces are mandatory, e.g. after commands).
• Ex.: $$\frac~xy$$ to produce
• Ex.: $$\sqrt~n$$ to produce
 Keyword(s): blank space, blank key, required whitespace

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